breast cancer

What is breast cancer?

Breast cancer is a group of diseases in which cells Changes and uncontrolled distribution of breast tissue. usually result in a lump or mass, Most start with breast cancer. In lobules (mammary glands) or ducts that connect to each other. lobules to the nipple.

What are the signs and symptoms of Breast cancer?

Breast cancer usually has no symptoms when the tumor is present.
Small and most easily treated, hence the screening Early detection is important.
The most common physical symptoms.
The physical symptom is a painless lump. Sometimes breast cancer Spreads to the underarm lymph nodes and causes a lump Swelling, even before the original breast tumor is large enough to feel. Less common signs and symptoms include breast pain or heaviness, Continuous changes, e.g swelling, thickening, or redness of the skin; And the nipple Changes, such as sudden discharge (especially if bloody), itching, or retching. Any permanent change in A breast exam should be done by a doctor.

How is breast cancer diagnosed?

Breast cancer is usually diagnosed either during Screening, before or after symptoms appear. The woman sees a lump.When cancer is suspected, the tissue Microscopic analysis is usually obtained from a Needle biopsy (fine needle or large core needle) and less Often by surgical biopsy. Select the type of The biopsy is based on several factors, including size and Mass location as well as patient factors and priorities and resourcess.

How does breast cancer occur?

The current extent of cancer and its prevalence The diagnosis determines the stage, which is necessary guide treatment options and prognosis (prognosis of disease outcome). Two main staging systems for Cancer is the American Joint Committee on Cancer.
(AJCC) staging system, commonly used in clinical settings, and surveillance, epidemiology, and endpoints (SEER) summary staging system, used for descriptive and Statistical analysis of tumor registry data. AJCC The system was recently updated (effective January 2018).

Add prognostic stage groups.

AJCC is anatomic stage. Based on the extent of cancer (breast, regional, etc.) lymph nodes and distant spread), while the prognostic stage Information on the presence of estrogen is also included. receptors (ER), progesterone receptors (PR), levels of Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2, a growth-promoting protein) and/or additional copies HER2 gene (HER2+/HER2-), and grade (reflects how A closer look at the microscopic appearance of cancer. normal breast tissue). In this document, we generally Refer to the SEER summary stage except for its section on Breast cancer treatment which refers to the AJCC anatomic stage. According to the SEER Summary Stage System:
1• In situ stage refers to the presence of abnormality Cells that are confined to a layer of cells where They created.
2• Local stage refers to invasive cancer that is limited to the breast The regional stage refers to cancer that has spread surrounding tissue and/or nearby lymph nodes.
3• Advanced stage refers to cancer that has spread.


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